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Trends of unemployment among the educated youth in Bangladesh and the policy for solving the issue

Bangladesh has a fairly young population with 34 percent aged 15 and younger and just 5 percent aged 65 and older. At present, more than 65 percent of our population is of working age, between 15 and 64. But the irony is, as has been depicted by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) that the unemployment rate among people with tertiary level education has considerably risen up. In contrast to overall development, about 46% of the total unemployed youth are university graduates! This article identified inconsistencies prevailing within different policies which were prepared by the government of Bangladesh to education along with skills development and job placement i.e. the (i) 'National Education Policy-2010', (ii) 'National Skills Development Policy-2011' and 'NFE Act 2014', (iii) National Service Program Guideline and (iv) NFE Act 2014.In this paper short-term, medium-term and long-term target, plans and strategies havebeen illustrated. It has been projected that if the recommendations of this study are implemented, the days are not far off when there will be zero unemployment among educated youth.

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Work Attitudes among Motor Drivers in Dhaka City

The study focuses on the relationship between work attitudes (i.e. work commitment, work involvement) and work satisfaction of the motor drivers in Dhaka city. The specific objectives were: to investigate the connection between work commitment, work involvement and work satisfaction of the motor drivers and to find out significant predictors as well as best predictor in case of the relationship among the variables. To collect primary data fifty motor drivers were selected purposively from different transport organization situated in Dhaka city. To measure work attitudes a package of three questionnaires were applied on the respondents respectively. Obtained data were analyzed by applying Pearson product moment correlation and stepwise multiple regression using SPSS version 25. Results revealed a significant positive relationship among all work attitude factors (i.e. work commitment, work involvement with work satisfaction) of the drivers. Further, multiple regression analyses indicated that only work commitment was the significant and important predictor, which alone explained 24.7% of variance in work satisfaction of drivers.

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PPP Policy Implementation Performance: A Cross-Case Analysis of Port Infrastructure Projects in Bangladesh

Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is one of the engaging words found in the recent public sector management and governance literature since 1990’s. Interestingly, literature on PPP policy implementation performance evaluation are still evolving. Against the presence of several methods for evaluating PPP performance and inclusion of diverse range of criteria, this study gives particular focus on evaluating PPP policy implementation performance based on a theory driven approach. Considering network management perspective as basic theoretical framework, this study evaluates PPP performance of two land port PPPs in Bangladesh using case study procedures and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) techniques. The study reveals that QCA is capable of indicating PPP success in more precise form based on qualitative remark scale. The basic advantage of the theory driven evaluation approach is reflected in surfacing up the strength of various performance indicators, which offer more insights in describing differences in PPP performance.

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Anatomy of a failure: Community Adaptation of the Water Purification Method in Coastal Bangladesh

Saline water intrusion is not always an usual occurrence and increasing threat for providing safe drinking water in the coastal areas of many developing countries including Bangladesh. Though several attempts like – Pond Sand Filter, Sono Filter, Pond Water Harvesting, Rain Water Harvesting, and other water purification methods were taken to meet the need of adequate safe drinking water for the coastal inhabitants, but so many real-life barriers made all efforts a failure attempt to meet the crisis. In this paper, we have tried to show why a promising, easy to access and comparatively less expensive water purification method, namely Pond Sand Filter (PSF) method failed to run in the local communities. The findings of this paper will help a researcher or policy formulator to get ideas regarding the existing hurdles of establishing such methods in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. There are so many available techniques to meet the need of this crisis, but most of those were failed to be functional at the end. The reason mostly is, those initiators have failed to understand the traditions and customs of the local inhabitants. The findings of this paper will let different thinkers and agencies understand some real-life socio-cultural barriers for which such promising initiatives went in vain most of the times. The research followed the triangulation of quantitative and qualitative method. The quantitative data were collected through sample survey, while the qualitative method followed the FGD and KII. We did conduct face-to-face interview with the representatives of different sectors irrespective to their role in this approach. Moreover, we have covered five specific key informant interviews to understand the problem more intensely. In addition, we have conducted two focus group discussions.

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The role of digital financial inclusion on promoting sustainable economic growth through banking stability: Evidence from Banglades

In this current era of 4th industrial revolution, accelerating digital finance is considered as one of the significant means for the banking sector stability that subsequently leads to economic growth. However, both the negative and positive effects of financial inclusion bring the question whether digital finance is good for sustainable growth or not. Hence, this paper aims to examine the role of digital financial inclusion on promoting sustainable economic growth through banking stability in Bangladesh using the data of 2011-2018 from Orbis bank-focus and financial access survey (FAS) databases by deploying panel corrected standard errors and two-stage least square-instrument variable methods. The study also aims to shed light on the impact, prospect and limitations of the digital financial inclusion and how its proper application in the banking sector of Bangladesh can bring sustainable financial growth to achieve the sustainable development goals (SDGs) using the projection data until 2030 by employing forecasting technique. The results suggest that digital financial inclusion leads to economic growth and an integrated digital financial inclusion by banks is not only a phenomenon for attaining the SDGs, rather it is a thing that demands to be implemented carefully for the economic stability of the bank itself. Therefore, the government, policymakers, standard setters as well as regulatory bodies can see digital financial inclusion as a changing agent that can bring a revolutionary development in the overall financial sector of Bangladesh which will advance the attainment of the SDGs by 2030.

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Conceptualizing the Role of Financial Capital, Human Capital and Innovation Capacity in the Development of Microenterprises in Banglades

Microenterprise creates an opportunity to generate income and employment for a significant number of workforces in rural and urban areas through the production of basic goods and services such as the making of traditional foods, fisheries, livestock & poultry, handicrafts, small trade & business, timber business/carpentry, garments & tailoring, etc. for the need of rapidly growing populations. Thus, the development of microenterprises has attracted the attention of regulators, governments and other stakeholders either in developing or least developed countries. In Bangladesh, Microfinance Institutions are, therefore, providing the loans to increase the income level of poor people along with achieving the prime goal of poverty reduction. However, in the literature, several studies have examined the determinants of microenterprises development, yet, there are several venues that need to be examined. After reviewing previous studies and based on the underpinning theoretical ground, the study finds that human capital and innovation capacity are the factors that have received little attention. Based on the human capital theorist, an individual’s skills help enterprises to perform better in business. As enterprises that possess proper skills and competencies are more likely to have higher levels of growth and profitability. Consequently, the innovation on new products can increase sales volume and market share, which can attract new consumers, while maintaining the loyalty of old consumers. Subsequently, studies on service innovation professed that providing new services can enhance the profitability of existing businesses. Therefore, these relevant issues are principally interesting to explore in the context of an emerging economy such as Bangladesh as a country has the vision of becoming a truly middle-income country and is setting ambitious targets to help achieve the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This finding provides useful implications for the stakeholders and policymakers and contributes to future literature.

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Legal Framework of Public Private Partnership in Bangladesh: A Critical Review

The aim of this paper is to review and critique the applicable policy and laws in Bangladesh regarding infrastructure procurement and the private sector engagement in public infrastructure assets and service delivery. Public Private Partnership (PPP) have great role and effective contributions to the infrastructure development sector, which defines national development and investment results. So creating favorable policy, law and regulatory environment are necessary for the PPPs effective development, investment results, effective risk and debt management and equity management. This paper examines the legal basis for private sector participation in the provision of infrastructure and service delivery in Bangladesh by applying the legal method in combination with the comparative study. It provides an analytical overview of the major provisions of legislation relevant to the public private partnership covering infrastructure, maintenance, and financing rules in Bangladesh. The paper argues that the laws that underpin the control framework in Bangladesh are inadequate and concluded with some policy recommendations and directions for future research.

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Socio Economic Impacts of Mixed Crop Cultivation in Gopalganj District of Bangladesh

This article focused on the socio-economic benefits of mixed crop cultivation by farmers based on primary and secondary data in the District of Gopalganj covering 5 Upazilas. A total of 270 marginal farmers participated in the survey of two subsequent researches. Findings demonstrated that mixed cropping system enhanced standards of living of farmers through the channels of income generation, increased in rural employment through increased participation of family farm labour, improved rural transportation, and higher enrolment in primary education, although dietary diversity had not improved that much. Overall, the multifunctional agricultural system upgraded the socio-economic rural profiles of the marginal farmers. These findings had important policy implications for government and non-government organizations of Bangladesh.

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Scenario of Development Planning in Bangladesh focusing on Sustainable Development Goals

Planning and Development are interrelated. In a sense, one cannot be separated from the other. Planningis used as a tool toinfluence decisions about development priorities &resource allocation either for a country, a region, a province or an organization.More than last 60 years, development planning has transformed. Central planning and market-oriented planning is the character of most developing countries. Early development planning was led by the Soviet Union, which was the only country engaged in systematic development planning prior to World War II. Today, planning is no longer an issue between centralized planning and market-based planning. Modern history has shown that neither centralized planning nor market-oriented planning alone has succeeded. In the last six decades, development planning has shifted, moving to broader, more complex, multi-disciplinary perception. The government’s role today is in making a supporting atmosphere for market to work and correct market failures. As an independent country Bangladesh has been formulating five year plan since 1973. Since then Bangladesh has successfully formulated seven five year plan. The economy of this country has been able to maintain sustained economic growth even in the face of global financial crisis. Bangladesh was one of the forerunners in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and also she is an early starter in the implementing process of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Many international organizations and countries opined on the brilliant success of Bangladesh’s development. To keep these achievements the country needs good governance in all spheres of life.

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Data Center Architecture Overview

Now is the era of cloud computing where internet based data are handled from remote places. Data is being entered, stored, processed, deposited and backed up all at the central servers located in specific buildings. Data center is a place where all these servers are gathered in compliance with art of technology. We have some limitations regarding knowledge about the architectures of data center. This article reveals some ideas about data center architectures and its components. Specially, this paper gives emphasis on explaining data center tier levels and its applications.